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王永茜.论黑社会性质组织犯罪的“组织特征”[J].北京理工大学学报(社会科学版),2019,21(5):152~159 本文二维码信息
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论黑社会性质组织犯罪的“组织特征”
On the “Organizational Characteristics” of Crimes of Mafia-style Organizations
投稿时间:2019-05-22  
DOI:10.15918/j.jbitss1009-3370.2019.1671
中文关键词:  组织特征  事实支配  形式要件  实质要件  阶层认定
English Keywords:organizational characteristics  actual control  formal requirements  substantial requirements  layered identification
基金项目:国家留学基金委青年骨干教师出国研修项目(留金发[2016]3192号)
作者单位
王永茜 北京航空航天大学 法学院, 北京 100191 
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中文摘要:
      为了逃避刑事侦查和审判,国内外的犯罪组织都在组织形式上出现了新变动,中国的黑社会性质组织业已呈现出组织形式多样化的趋势。如果刑法理论依然停留在原有的研究基础上,严格要求涉案组织必须符合组织特征的形式要件,必将不利于打击和预防新形式的涉黑犯罪组织。组织特征是黑社会性质组织核心特征之一。组织特征既有形式的侧面,也有实质的侧面,实质的侧面更能说明黑社会性质组织的处罚根据。根据阶层认定方法,组织特征的成立需要从形式的侧面到实质的侧面进行认定。无论涉案组织在组织形式上如何变动,只要能够在实质上认定各个犯罪组织成员在行动上具有"组织性"、组织者、领导者对组织成员的行动具有"事实支配性",从而能够在违法性上将组织成员所实施的违法犯罪活动凝聚为一个"结合体",就可以认定该组织是黑社会性质组织。对于目前出现的"松散型结构"的犯罪组织,司法机关应根据阶层认定方法,将符合实质要件的组织认定为黑社会性质组织。
English Summary:
      In order to avoid criminal investigation and criminal trial,the crime organizations are all making changes to their organizational structures. The Mafia-style organization in our china also shows the trend of diversification of organization forms. If the criminal theory still lingers on the basis of the original research and strictly require the involved organizations to conform to formal requirements of organizational characteristics,it will be detrimental to the fight and prevention of new forms of Mafia-style organizations. The organization characteristic is the first characteristic of the Mafia-style organizations,and it is also one of its core characteristics. The organization characteristic has the formal aspects,also has the substantive aspects. And the substantive aspects can better explain the punishment basis of the Mafia-style organizations. According to the layered identification method,the establishment of organizational characteristics needs to be identified from the formal aspects to the substantive aspects. No matter how the formal requirements change in the criminal organization under examination in judicial practice,as long as substantial requirements are met that each member in action with the "organized" action,the organizer and leader of organization members have actual control over the "organized" action,so that all the organizational members who commit the illegal and criminal activities will be deemed as a "combination group",then it can be concluded that this organization is the Mafia-style organization. As for the "loose structure" of the criminal organizations,the judicial department should take the layered identification method,and determine the criminal organization which qualifies substantial aspects of organizational characteristics to be the Mafia-style organization.
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