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廖华,伍敬文.家庭生活用能调查方案的国际比较及启示[J].北京理工大学学报(社会科学版),2019,21(5):11~18 本文二维码信息
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家庭生活用能调查方案的国际比较及启示
Household Energy Consumption Survey: International Comparison and Implications
投稿时间:2019-02-19  
DOI:10.15918/j.jbitss1009-3370.2019.7436
中文关键词:  家庭生活用能  能源调查  国际比较
English Keywords:household energy consumption  survey scheme of energy consumption  international comparison
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题"能源结构对碳排放强度的作用规律及参数化"(2016YFA0602801);国家自然科学基金面上项目"农户燃料选择行为及其对健康和社会经济的影响研究"(71673026)
作者单位
廖华 北京理工大学 管理与经济学院 能源与环境政策研究中心, 北京 100081 
伍敬文 北京理工大学 管理与经济学院 能源与环境政策研究中心, 北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      家庭用能与生产部门用能有不同的影响机制,很多国家开展了家庭用能抽样调查。从调查机构、调查频率、调查对象、调查内容、抽样方法、数据采集、质量控制、数据发布和开放使用等方面对部分国家和国际组织的家庭用能调查方案作出比较和总结。大型的家庭用能调查多由政府主导,且通常是居民生活或住房调查的组成部分,家庭能源专项调查较少。调查内容不仅包括不同能源品种的使用量信息,还区分最终用途。调查手段以入户调查为主,网上调查、邮寄调查和电话调查为辅。现代信息技术为提高调查效率和数据质量提供了重要保障。现有调查中大多数没实现追踪调查。与非官方调查相比,广泛调查数据具有样本大、覆盖面广、抽样科学、可共享等特点。发达国家和发展中国家在调查意识、内容和数据使用方面差异较大。目前中国居民能源调查还不完善,建议在现有的住户调查基础上逐步推进能源调查。
English Summary:
      Energy consumption between the household sector and production sectors have different impact mechanisms,and many countries have conducted household energy consumption surveys. This paper compares and summarizes several household energy consumption programs conducted by some countries or international organizations from survey institutions,survey frequency,survey objects,survey content,sampling methods,data collection,quality control,data release,and open use. Large-scale household energy consumption surveys are mostly government-led and are often part of residential living or housing surveys,with fewer specialized surveys. The survey includes not only the usage information of different energy types but also energy used for various family activities. The survey method is mainly based on face to face interview,supplemented by online surveys,mail surveys and telephone surveys. Modern information technology provides an important guarantee for improving survey efficiency and data quality. Most of the existing surveys did not implement tracking investigations. Compared with unofficial surveys,large-scale survey data has the characteristics of large sample size,wide coverage,scientific sampling,and shareability. Developed and developing countries differ greatly in their survey awareness,content and use of data. There is no specialized household energy consumption survey in China,and it is recommended to gradually promote it based on existing household surveys.
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